Karen Hayes is the vice president, environment, energy & extractives. An internationally recognized expert on artisanal and small-scale mining, Karen's experience includes both technical field work and strategic analysis of social development, conflicts, economics and private sector investment in the mining sector. She has worked on issues including security and human rights, governance and transparency, economic empowerment, sustainable enterprise and livelihood development, corporate responsibility and international best practice, mineral traceability and supply chain management, land access and rights, mining legislation consultation and dissemination, child labor and natural resource management. She has worked extensively on war economics with an emphasis on the role of formal and informal actors and trade in both contributing to conflict and enabling post-conflict reconstruction. Karen's experience includes cobalt, copper, diamonds, gold, tantalum, tin and tungsten.